Regularity of center manifold

Let X:\mathbb{R}^d\to \mathbb{R}^d be a C^\infty vector field with X(o)=0. Then the origin o is a fixed point of the generated flow on \mathbb{R}^d. Let T_o\mathbb{R}^d=\mathbb{R}^s\oplus\mathbb{R}^c\oplus\mathbb{R}^u be the splitting into stable, center and unstable directions. Moreover, there are three invariant manifolds (at least locally) passing through o and tangent to the corresponding subspaces at o.

Theorem (Pliss). For any n\ge 1, there exists a C^n center manifold C^n(o)=W^{c,n}(o).

Generally speaking, the size of the center manifold given above depends on the pre-fixed regularity requirement. Theoretically, there may not be a C^\infty center manifold, since C^n(o) could shrink to o as n\to\infty. An explicit example was given by van Strien (here). He started with a family of vector fields X_\mu(x,y)=(x^2-\mu^2, y+x^2-\mu^2). It is easy to see that (\mu,0) is a fixed point, with \lambda_1=2\mu<\lambda_2=1. The center manifold can be represented (locally) as the graph of y=f_\mu(x).

Lemma. For n\ge 3, \mu=\frac{1}{2n}, f_\mu is at most C^{n-1} at (\frac{1}{2n},0).

Proof. Suppose f_\mu is C^{k} at (\frac{1}{2n},0), and let \displaystyle f_\mu(x)=\sum_{i=1}^{k}a_i(x-\mu)^i+o(|x-\mu|^{k}) be the finite Taylor expansion. The vector field direction (x^2-\mu^2, y+x^2-\mu^2) always coincides with the tangent direction (1,f'_\mu(x)) along the graph (x,f_\mu(x)), which leads to


Note that x^2-\mu^2=(x-\mu)^2+2\mu(x-\mu). Then up to an error term o(|x-\mu|^{k}), the right-hand side in terms of (x-\mu): (a_1+2\mu)(x-\mu)+(a_2+1)(x-\mu)^2+\sum_{i=3}^{k}a_i(x-\mu)^i; while the left-hand side in terms of (x-\mu):

(x-\mu)^2f_\mu'(x)+2\mu(x-\mu)f_\mu'(x)=\sum_{i=1}^{k}ia_i(x-\mu)^{i+1}+\sum_{i=1}^{k}2\mu i a_i(x-\mu)^i

=\sum_{i=2}^{k}(i-1)a_{i-1}(x-\mu)^{i}+\sum_{i=1}^{k}2\mu i a_i(x-\mu)^i.

So for i=1: 2\mu a_1=a_1+2\mu, a_1=\frac{-2\mu}{1-2\mu}\sim 0;

i=2: a_2+1=a_1+4\mu a_2, a_2=\frac{a_1-1}{1-4\mu}\sim -1;

i=3,\cdots,k: a_i=(i-1)a_{i-1}+2i\mu a_i, (1-2i\mu)a_i=(i-1)a_{i-1}.

Note that if k\ge n, we evaluate the last equation at i=n to conclude that a_{n-1}=0. This will force a_i=0 for all i=n-2,\cdots,2, which contradicts the second estimate that a_2\sim -1. Q.E.D.

Consider the 3D vector field X(x,y,z)=(x^2-z^2, y+x^2-z^2,0). Note that the singular set S are two lines x=\pm z, y=0 (in particular it contains the origin O=(0,0,0)). Note that D_OX=E_{22}. Hence a cener manifold W^c(O) through O is tangent to plane y=0, and can be represented as y=f(x,z). We claim that f(x,x)=0 (at least locally).

Proof of the claim. Suppose on the contrary that c_n=f(x_n,x_n)\neq0 for some x_n\to 0. Note that p_n=(x_n,c_n,x_n)\in W^c(O), and W^c(O) is flow-invariant. However, there is exactly one flow line passing through p_n: the line L_n=\{(x_n,c_nt,x_n):t>0\}. Therefore L_n\subset W^c(O), which contradicts the fact that W^c(O) is tangent to plane y=0 at O. This completes the proof of the claim.

The planes z=\mu are also invariant under the flow. Let’s take the intersection W_\mu=\{z=\mu\}\cap W^c(O)=\{(x,f(x,\mu),\mu)\}. Then we check that \{(x,f(x,\mu))\} is a (in fact the) center manifold of the restricted vector field in the plane z=\mu. We already checked that f(x,\mu) is not C^\infty, so is W^c(O).

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